Advancing Research on Conflict

The ARC Bibliography

The ARC Bibliography is a resource for researchers working in fragile, conflict or violence-affected contexts or on related topics. The majority of materials focus on the ethical, logistical, and methodological issues that may arise in such work.

At this point, these materials have been curated by scholars trained predominantly in political science and located in the US and Europe. We are avowedly methodologically and epistemologically pluralist. We have included materials from across research traditions and from scholars located around the world; the works are, however, predominantly in English. We include some relevant materials from sociology, anthropology, history, and area studies. We welcome further suggestions and additions via email.

Given the volume of scholarship available, this bibliography is a work in progress. We do our best to update our resources as new, relevant work is published and are continuously adding material (in particular, book chapters). We are a small group of scholars and we are not paid for our efforts, so additions may not always be immediate. We are unfortunately unable to send listed materials to people, but strive to link to un-gated publications when possible.

The ARC Bibliography is divided into the following categories (click to view sections or download full bibliography in pdf here):

Research Ethics

Power, Politics, and Representation

Vulnerability, Emotions, and Trauma

Field Logistics, Data Security, and Risk Management

Institutional Review, IRBs, Ethics Codes

Publication, Research Openness, and Participant Protection

Researcher Identity, Reflexivity, and Positionality



Research Ethics


Baele, S. J. et al. (2018). ‘The Ethics of Security Research: An Ethics Framework for Contemporary Security Studies.’ International Studies Perspectives, 19(2), 105–127. [Link]

Basini, H. (2016). ‘‘Doing No Harm’: Methodological and Ethical Challenges of Working with Women Associated with Fighting Forces/Ex-combatants in Liberia.’ In A. Wibben (Ed.), Researching War: Feminist Methods, ethics and politics (pp.163-184). Oxon & New York: Routledge. [Link]

Blee, K. M., & Currier, A. (2011). ‘Ethics Beyond the IRB: An Introductory Essay.’ Qualitative Sociology, 34(3), 401-413. [Link]

Blee, K.M. and Vining, T. (2010). “Risks and Ethics of Social Movement Research in a Changing Political Climate.”  In Research in Social Movements, Conflict and Change. pp. 43-70. [Link]

Campbell, S. P. (2017). ‘Ethics of Research in Conflict Environments.’ Journal of Global Security Studies, 2(1), 89–101. [Link]

Carpenter, C. (2012). ‘‘You Talk of Terrible Things So Matter-of-Factly in This Language of Science’: Constructing Human Rights in the Academy.’ Perspectives on Politics, 10(2), 363–383. [Link]

Clark, J. N. (2012). ‘Fieldwork and Its Ethical Challenges: Reflections from Research in Bosnia.’ Human Rights Quarterly, 34(3), 823–39. [Link]

Cramer, C.; Hammond, L., & Pottier, J. (Eds.). (2011). Researching Violence in Africa: Ethical and Methodological Challenges. Leiden: Brill. [Link]

Cronin-Furman, K., & Lake, M. (2018). ‘Ethics Abroad: Fieldwork in Fragile and Violent Contexts.’ PS: Political Science & Politics, 51(3), 607-614. [PDF]

Curtis, D. A. (2019). “What Is Our Research For? Responsibility, Humility and the Production of Knowledge about Burundi.” Africa Spectrum, 54(1), 4-21. [PDF

Dauphinee, E. (2007). The Ethics of Researching War: Looking for Bosnia. Manchester & New York: Manchester University Press. [Link]

Desai, D., & Tapscott, R. (2015). ‘Tomayto Tomahto: The Research Supply Chain and the Ethics of Knowledge Production.’ Humanity Journal Blog. [Link]

Fujii, L. A. (2012). ‘Research Ethics 101: Dilemmas and Responsibilities.’ PS: Political Science & Politics, 45(4), 717–23. [PDF]

Goodhand, J. (2000). ‘Research in Conflict Zones: Ethics and Accountability.’ Forced Migration, 8(4), 12–15. [PDF].

Guillemin, M., & Gillam, L. (2004). ‘Ethics, Reflexivity, and ‘Ethically Important Moments’ in Research.’ Qualitative Inquiry, 10(2), 261–280. [Link]

Knott, E. (2018). ‘Beyond the Field: Ethics After Fieldwork in Politically Dynamic Contexts.’ Perspectives on Politics, 17(1), 140-153. [PDF]

Lake, M., & Parkinson, S.E. (2017). ‘The Ethics of Fieldwork Preparedness.’ Political Violence at a Glance. [Link

Mackenzie, C., McDowell, C., and Pittaway, E. (2007). “Beyond ‘Do No Harm’: The Challenge of Constructing Ethical Relationships in Refugee Research.” Journal of Refugee Studies 20, no. 2: 299–319. [Link].

Masterson, D., and Mourad, L. (2019). “The Ethical Challenges of Field Research in the Syrian Refugee Crisis.” APSA MENA POLITICS 2(1). [Link]. 

Mitchell, A. (2013). ‘Escaping the ‘Field Trap’: Exploitation and the Global Politics of Educational Fieldwork in ‘Conflict Zones.’’ Third World Quarterly, 34(7), 1247–1264. [Link]

Nouwen, S. (2014). ‘’As You Set out for Ithaka’: Practical, Epistemological, Ethical, and Existential Questions about Socio-Legal Empirical Research in Conflict.’ Leiden Journal of International Law, 27(1), 227–260. [Link]. 

Parkinson, S.E. (2015) “Towards an Ethics of Sight: Violence Scholarship and the Arab Uprisings.” LSE Middle East Center Blog, August 26, 2015. [Link].

Pittaway, E.; Bartolomei, L., & Hugman, R. (2010). ‘‘Stop Stealing Our Stories’: The Ethics of Research with Vulnerable Groups.’ Journal of Human Rights Practice, 2(2), 229–251. [PDF]

Project on Middle East Political Science. (2014). POMEPS Studies 8: The Ethics of Research in the Middle East. Washington, DC: Project on Middle East Political Science [PDF

Schwedler, Jillian. (2014). “Toward Transparency in the Ethics of Knowledge Production.” POMEPS Studies 8: The Ethics of Research in the Middle East Washington, DC: Project on Middle East Political Science. [Link].

Thomson, S., Ansoms, A., & Murison, J. (Eds.). (2013). Emotional and Ethical Challenges for Field Research in Africa: The Story Behind the Findings. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. [Link]

Thomson, S. (2009). Developing Ethical Guidelines for Researchers Working in Post-Conflict Environments. Research Report, States and Security Program, City University of New York

Wackenhut, A. F. (2018). ‘Ethical Considerations and Dilemmas Before, During and After Fieldwork in Less-Democratic Contexts: some Reflections from Post-Uprising Egypt.’ The American Sociologist, 49(2), 242-257. [PDF]

Wood, E.J. (2007). “Field Research During War: Ethical Dilemmas.” In New Perspectives in Political Ethnography, edited by Lauren Joseph, Matthew Mahler, and Javier Auyero, 205–23. New York, NY: Springer New York. [Link].

Wood, E. J. (2006). ‘The Ethical Challenges of Field Research in Conflict Zones.’ Qualitative Sociology, 29(3), 373–86. [Link]


Power, Politics, and Representation

Abaza, M. (2011). “Academic Tourists Sight-Seeing the Arab Spring.” AhramOnline, September 26. [Link].

Al-Hardan, A. (2017). “Researching Palestinian Refugees: Who Sets the Agenda?” Al-Shabaka (blog). April 27. [Link].

Bahati, I. (2019). “Le Robot Producteur Sud: Quel Avenir Dans Les Zones Rouges?” Rift Valley Institute. May 23. [Link

Bet-Shlimon, A. (2018). “Preservation or Plunder? The ISIS Files and a History of Heritage Removal in Iraq.” Middle East Research and Information Project (blog), May 8. [Link].

Boesten, J., & Henry, M. (2018). ‘Between Fatigue and Silence: The Challenges of Conducting Research on Sexual Violence in Conflict’. Social Politics, 25(4), 568-588. [Link]

Bouka, Y. (2018). ‘Collaborative Research as Structural Violence.’ Political Violence at a Glance. [Link]

Brand, L. (2014). “Of Power Relations and Responsibilities.” POMEPS Studies 8: The Ethics of Research in the Middle East. Washington, DC: Project on Middle East Political Science. [Link].

Clark, T. (2008). ‘‘We’re Over-Researched Here!’ Exploring Accounts of Research Fatigue within Qualitative Research Engagements.’ Sociology, 42(5), 953-970. [Link]

Cohen, D. K., and Hoover Green, A. (2016). “Were 75 Percent of Liberian Women and Girls Raped? No. So Why is the UN Repeating that Misleading Statistic?” The Washington Post. [Link].

Cunsolo, A., & Hudson, A. (2018). ‘Relationships, Resistance & Resurgence in Northern-led Research.’ Northern Public Affairs Magazine. [Link]

Denney, L., & Domingo, P. (2015). ‘Turning the Gaze on Ourselves: Acknowledging the Political Economy of Development Research.’ Humanity Journal Blog. [Link]

Dzuverovic, N. (2018). ‘Why Local Voices Matter. Participation of Local Researchers in the Liberal Peace Debate.’ Peacebuilding, 6(2), 111-126. [Link]

Forte, Maximilian C. (2011). “The Human Terrain System and Anthropology: A Review of Ongoing Public Debates.” American Anthropologist 113 (1): 149–53. [Link].

Foster, J.E., and Minwalla, S. (2018). “Voices of Yazidi Women: Perceptions of Journalistic Practices in the Reporting on ISIS Sexual Violence.” Women’s Studies International Forum 67 (March 1, 2018): 53–64. [Link].

Henry, M. (2013). “Ten Reasons Not To Write Your Master’s Dissertation on Sexual Violence in War.” The Disorder Of Things (blog). June 4, 2013. [Link].

Henry, M., Higate, P., and Sanghera, G. (2009). “Positionality and power: the politics of peacekeeping research.” International Peacekeeping 16(4): 467–482.

Kalinga, C. (2019). “Caught Between A Rock and a Hard Place: Navigating Global Research Partnerships in the Global South as an Indigenous Researcher.” Journal of African Cultural Studies 31(3): 270-272. [Link]

Lewis, C, Banga, A., Cimuka, G., Hategekimana, J., Lake, M., and Pierotti, R. (2019). “Walking the Line: Brokering Humanitarian Identity in Conflict Research.“  Civil Wars 21(2). Forthcoming.

Martin, C. (2016). “The ‘Third World’ Is Not Your Classroom.” BRIGHT Magazine, March 7, 2016. [Link]

Mertens, C. (2018). “Undoing Research on Sexual Violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.” ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies. [PDF]

Mwambari, D. (2019). “Local Positionality in the Production of Knowledge in Northern Uganda.” International Journal of Qualitative Methods 18 (Online). [Link].

Nayel, M.A. (2013). “Palestinian Refugees Are Not at Your Service.” The Electronic Intifada (blog), May 17. [Link]. 

Pachirat, T. (2009). “The Political in Political Ethnography: Dispatches from the Kill Floor.” In Political Ethnography: What Immersion Contributes to the Study of Power, edited by Edward Schatz, 143–62. Chicago, IL: University Of Chicago Press.

Parkinson, S.E. (2019). “Humanitarian Crisis Research as Intervention.” Middle East Report 290 (Spring 2019): 29-37. [Link].

Rodríguez, C. O. (2017). ‘How Academia Uses Poverty, Oppression, and Pain for Intellectual Masturbation.’ RaceBaitR. [Link

Social Science Research Council. “The Minerva Controversy.” [Link].

Sukarieh, M., & Tannock, S. (2019). “Subcontracting Academia: Alienation, Exploitation and Disillusionment in the UK Overseas Syrian Refugee Research Industry.” Antipode 51(2): 664–80. [Link].

Sukarieh, M., & Tannock, S. (2013). ‘On the Problem of Over-Researched Communities: The Case of the Shatila Palestinian Refugee Camp in Lebanon.’ Sociology, 47(3): 1-15. [Link]

Tilley, L. (2017). ‘Resisting Piratic Method by Doing Research Otherwise.’ Sociology 51(1): 27-42. [PDF

Tuck, E. (2009). ‘Suspending Damage: A Letter to Communities.’ Harvard Educational Review 79(3). 409-427. [PDF]


Vulnerability, Emotions, and Trauma


Akello, G. (2012). ‘The Importance of the Autobiographic Self During Research Among Wartime Children in Northern Uganda.’ Medische Antropologie 24(2): 289-300. [PDF]

Brayne, Mark. 2009. “Trauma & Journalism: A Practical Guide.” Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma: Columbia University School of Journalism, March 24. [Link]  

Enria, L. (2018). “Elective Affinities: Fragility and Injustice in the Field.” The New Ethnographer. April 25. [Link].

Gentile, M. (2013). ‘Meeting the ‘Organs’: The Tacit Dilemma of Field Research in Authoritarian States.’ Area 45(4): 426-432. [Link]

Hage, G. (2009). “Hating Israel in the Field On Ethnography and Political Emotions.” Anthropological Theory 9(1): 59–79. [Link].

Jamar, A., & Chappuis, F. (2016). ‘Conventions of Silence: Emotions and Knowledge Production in War-Affected Research Environments.’ Parcours anthropologiques. [PDF]

Kreft, A.K. (2019). “On Difficult Research and Mental Wellbeing.” [Link

Lecoocq, B. (2002). ‘Fieldwork Ain’t Always Fun: Public and Hidden Discourses on Fieldwork’. History in Africa 29: 273-282. [Link]  

Liamputtong, P. (2007). Researching the Vulnerable. A Guide to Sensitive Research Methods. London: Sage. [Link

Loyle, C. E., & Simoni, A. (2017). ‘Researching Under Fire: Political Science and Researcher Trauma.’ PS: Political Science & Politics 50(1): 141-145. [PDF]

Shesterinina, A. (2018). ‘Ethics, Empathy, and Fear in Research on Violent Conflict.’ Journal of Peace Research 56(2): 190-202. [PDF]

Thomson, S.M., Ansoms, A., and Murison, J. (2013). Emotional and Ethical Challenges for Field Research in Africa - he Story Behind the Findings. Palgrave Macmillan.

University of Sheffield. (2019). Emotionally Demanding Research: Risks to the Researcher. Specialist Research Ethics Guidance Paper. [PDF]

Wolfe, L. (2017). “10 Do’s and Don’ts on How to Interview Sexualized Violence Survivors.” Women Under Siege, May 17. [Link]

World Health Organization. (2011). Psychological First Aid: Guide for Field Workers. [PDF]


Field Logistics, Data Security, and Risk Management


Baird, A. (2018). ‘Dancing with danger: ethnographic safety, male bravado and gang research in Colombia.’ Qualitative Research 18(3): 342-360. [Link]

Dixit, M. (2013). ‘Field Research in Conflict Zones: Experience from India and Sierra Leone.’ International Studies 49(1-2): 133-150. [Link].

Electronic Frontier Foundation Resource for Academic Researchers [Link].

Goldstein, D.M. (2014). “Qualitative Research in Dangerous Places: Becoming an Ethnographer of Violence and Personal Safety” Social Science Research Council DSD Working Papers on Research Security, Working Paper Series.

Grimm, J., Koehler, K., Lust, L., Saliba, I., and Schierenbeck, I. (2019). Safer Research in the Social Sciences: A Systematic Handbook for Human and Digital Security. [Link].

Hackblossom (Digital Security Resource) [Link].        

Hilhorst, D.; Hodgson, L.; Jansen, B.; Mena, R. (2016). Security Guidelines for Field Research in Complex, Remote and Hazardous Places. The Hague: International Institute of Social Studies. English [PDF], French [PDF], Arabic [PDF]

Kapiszewski, D., MacLean, L.M., and Read, B. (2015). Field Research in Political Science: Practices and Principles. Cambridge University Press.

Malejacq, R., & Mukhopadhyay, D. (2016). ‘The ‘Tribal Politics’ of Field Research: A Reflection on Power and Partiality in 21st-Century Warzones.’ Perspectives on Politics, 14(4): 1011-1028. [PDF]

Mertus, J. A. (2009). ‘Maintenance of Personal Security: Ethical and Operational Issues.’ In C. Sriram et al. (Eds.), Surviving Field Research: Working in Violent and Difficult Situations (pp. 165-176). London & New York: Routledge. [Link]

Nilan, P. (2002). ‘’Dangerous Fieldwork’ Re-examined: The Question of Researcher Subject Position.’ Qualitative Research, 2(3): 363-386. [PDF]

Nordstrom, C., & Robben, A. (Eds.). (1995). Fieldwork Under Fire: Contemporary Studies of Violence and Survival. Berkeley: University of California Press. [Link]

Norman, J. M. (2009). ‘Got Trust? The Challenge of Gaining Access in Conflict Zones.’ In C. Sriram et al. (Eds.), Surviving Field Research: Working in Violent and Difficult Situations (pp. 71-90). London & New York: Routledge. [Link]

Palys, T., & Lowman, J. (2012). ‘Defending Research Confidentiality ‘To the Extent the Law Allows:’ Lessons From the Boston College Subpoenas.’ Journal of Academic Ethics, 10(4): 271–297. [Link]

Parkinson, S.E. (2017). “Through the Looking Glass: Information Security and Middle East Research.” POMEPS Studies 24: New Challenges to Public and Policy Engagement. Project on Middle East Political Science: Washington, DC, March 13. [Link]. 

Parkinson, S.E. (2014). “Practical Ethics: How U.S. Law and the “War on Terror” Affect Research in the Middle East” POMEPS Studies 8: New Challenges to Public and Policy Engagement. Project on Middle East Political Science: Washington, DC. [Link].

Peter, M., & Strazzari, F. (2017). ‘Securitisation of research: fieldwork under new restrictions in Darfur and Mali.’ Third World Quarterly, 38(7): 1531-1550. [Link]

Research in Difficult Settings Website:

Richmond, O. P.; Kappler, S., & Björkdahl, A. (2015). ‘The ‘Field’ in the Age of Intervention: Power, Legitimacy, and Authority Versus the ‘Local’.’ Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 44(1): 23-44. [Link]

Romano, David. 2006. “Conducting Research in the Middle East’s Conflict Zones.” PS: Political Science & Politics 39(3): 439–41. [Link].

Sluka, J. A. (2018). ‘Too Dangerous for Fieldwork? The Challenge of Institutional Risk-Management in Primary Research on Conflict, Violence and ‘Terrorism.’’ Contemporary Social Science 0(0): 1–17. [Link]

Sluka, J. A. (2007). ‘Reflections on Managing Danger in Fieldwork: Dangerous Anthropology in Belfast.’ In A. Robben & J. A. Sluka (Eds.), Ethnographic Fieldwork: An Anthropological Reader (pp. 283-296). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. [Link

Thomas, D. et al. (2017). Ethical Issues in Research Using Datasets of Illicit Origin. Proceedings of IMC ’17. [PDF

Thomson, S. (2010). “Getting Close to Rwandans since the Genocide: Studying Everyday Life in Highly Politicized Research Settings.” African Studies Review 53(03): 19–34. [Link]. 

Thomson, S. (2009). ‘‘That is Not What We Authorised You to Do …’: Access and Government Interference in Highly Politicised Research Environments.’ In C. Sriram et al. (Eds.), Surviving Field Research: Working in Violent and Difficult Situations (pp. 108-123). London & New York: Routledge. [Link]

Van Baalen, S. (2018). ‘’Google Wants to Know Your Location’: The Ethical Challenges of Fieldwork in the Digital Age.’ Research Ethics, 14(2): 1-17. [PDF]

Wood, E.J. (2009). “Field Research.” In The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics, by C. Boix and S.C. Stokes. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. [Link].


Institutional Review, IRB, and Ethics Codes


Bhattacharya, S. (2014). ‘Institutional Review Board and International Field Research in Conflict Zones.” PS: Political Science & Politics 47(4) (October 2014): 840–44. [Link].

Callaway, E. (2017) “South Africa’s San People Issue Ethics Code to Scientists.” Nature News 543(7646): 475. [Link].

Bosk, C., & de Vries, R. (2004). ‘Bureaucracies of Mass Deception: Institutional Review Boards and the Ethics of Ethnographic Research.’ Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 595(1): 249–263. [Link]

Devries, K. M. et al. (2015). ‘’I Never Expected That it Would Happen, Coming to Ask Me Such Questions’: Ethical Aspects of Asking Children About Violence in Resource Poor Settings.’ Trials, 16(516): 1-12. [PDF]

Hemming, J. (2009). ‘Exceeding Scholarly Responsibility: IRBs and Political Constraints.’ In C. Sriram et al. (Eds.), Surviving Field Research: Working in Violent and Difficult Situations (pp. 21-37). London & New York: Routledge. [Link]

Michelson, M. R. (2016). ‘The Risk of Over-Reliance on the Institutional Review Board: An Approved Project Is Not Always an Ethical Project.’ PS: Political Science & Politics, 49(2): 299-303. [Link]

Nordling, L. (2017) “San People of Africa Draft Code of Ethics for Researchers.” Science (blog), March 17. [Link].

Office for Human Research Protections. 2018. “International Compilation of Human Research Standards : 2018 Edition”. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. [PDF]

Yanow, D., & Schwartz-Shea, P. (2008). ‘Reforming Institutional Review Board Policy: Issues in Implementation and Field Research.’ PS: Political Science & Politics, 41(3): 483–494. [Link]


Publication, Research Openness, and Participant Protection


American Political Science Association Qualitative Transparency Deliberations: Final Reports. [Link]

Fujii, L. A. (2016). ‘The Dark Side of DA-RT.’ Comparative Politics Newsletter, 26(1): 25-27. [PDF

Harper, Robin A. (2018). ‘Thinking about Journals, IRBs, and Research Partners (Interviewees).’ [PDF]

Fassin, D. (2015). ‘The Public Afterlife of Ethnography.’ American Ethnologist, 42(4): 592-609. [Link]

Khan, S. (2019). “The Subpoena of Ethnographic Data.” Sociological Forum 34(1): 253–63. [Link].

Krystalli, R. (2018). Negotiating Data Management with the National Science Foundation: Transparency and Ethics in Research Relationships. Memo. [PDF]

Lynch, M. 2016. “Area studies and the cost of prematurely implementing DA-RT.” Comparative Politics Newsletter 26(1): 36–39. [Link].

McMurtrie, B. (2014). “Secrets From Belfast.” Chronicle of Higher Education, January 26.

Parkinson, S. E., & Wood, E. J. (2015). ‘Transparency in intensive research on violence: Ethical dilemmas and unforeseen consequences.’ Qualitative & Multi-Method Research, 13(1): 22-27. [PDF]

Shih, V. (2015). ‘Research in authoritarian regimes: Transparency tradeoffs and solutions.’ Qualitative & Multi-Method Research, 13(1): 20-22. [Link]

Sriram, C. (2009). ‘Maintenance of Standards of Protection during Writeup and Publication.’ In C. Sriram et al. (Eds.), Surviving Field Research: Working in Violent and Difficult Situations (pp. 57–68). London & New York: Routledge. [Link]

Tripp, A. M. (2018). “Transparency and Integrity in Conducting Field Research on Politics in Challenging Contexts.” Perspectives on Politics, 16(3): 728-738. [PDF]


Researcher Identity, Reflexivity, and Positionality


Al-Ali, N., & Pratt, N. (2016). ‘Positionalities, Intersectionalities, and Transnational Feminism in Researching Women in Post-invasion Iraq.’ In A. Wibben (Ed.), Researching War: Feminist Methods, ethics and politics (pp. 76-91). Oxon & New York: Routledge. [Link]

Bond, K.D. (2018). “Reflexivity and Revelation.” Qualitative and Multi-Method Research 16(1): 45–47. [Link].

Bouka, Y. (2015). ‘Researching Violence in Africa as a Black Woman: Notes from Rwanda.’ Research in Difficult Settings (Blog). [Link]

Brown, S. (2009). ‘Dilemmas of Self-Representation and Conduct in the Field.’ In C. Sriram et al. (Eds.), Surviving Field Research: Working in Violent and Difficult Situations (pp. 213-226). London & New York: Routledge. [Link]

Calvey, D. (2018). ‘The Everyday World of Bouncers: A Rehabilitated Role for Covert Ethnography.’ Qualitative Research 19(3): 247-262. [Link]

Davenport, C. (2013). ‘Researching While Black: Why Conflict Research Needs More African Americans (Maybe).’ Political Violence at a Glance (Blog). [Link].

Driscoll, J., & Schuster, C. (2018). ‘Spies Like Us.’ Ethnography 19(3): 411-430. [Link]

Henderson, F. B. (2009). ‘‘We Thought You Would Be White’: Race and Gender in Fieldwork.’ PS: Political Science and Politics, 42(2): 291–294. [Link]         

Johansson, L. (2015). ‘Dangerous Liaisons: Risk, Positionality and Power in Women’s Anthropological Fieldwork.’ Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford 7(1): 55-63. [PDF]

Ortbals, C. D., & Rincker, M. E. (2009). “Embodied Researchers: Gendered Bodies, Research Activity, and Pregnancy in the Field.” PS: Political Science & Politics 42(2): 315-319. [Link]

Roxburgh, S. (2017). “Read Black and White: Decolonizing African Studies in North America.” Research in Difficult Settings. [PDF]

Schwedler, J. (2006). “The Third Gender: Western Female Researchers in the Middle East.” PS: Political Science & Politics 39(3): 425–28. [Link].

Thaler, K. (2019). “Reflexivity and Temporality in Researching Violent Settings: Problems with the Replicability and Transparency Regime.” Geopolitics 0(0): 1–27. [Link].

Thapar-Björkert, S., & Henry, M. (2004). ‘Reassessing the Research Relationship: Location, Position and Power in Fieldwork Accounts.’ International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 7(5): 363-381. [Link]

Thomas, L. (2018). ‘Dear Political Science, It Is Time for a Self-Reflexive turn!’ Duck of Minerva [Link].

Thomas, L. (2018). “Unmasking: The Role of Reflexivity in Political Science.” Qualitative and Multi-Method Research 16(1): 42-44. [Link].  

Thompson, M. (2009). ‘Research, Identities, and Praxis: The Tensions of Integrating Identity into the Field Experience.’ Political Science & Politics 42(2): 325-328. [Link]

Townsend-Bell, E. (2009). ‘Being True and Being You: Race, Gender, Class, and the Fieldwork Experience.’ PS: Political Science & Politics 42(2): 311-314.  [Link

Yacob-Haliso, O. (2018). ‘Intersectionalities and Access in Fieldwork in Postconflict Liberia: Motherland, Motherhood, and Minefields.’ African Affairs, 118(470): 168–181. [Link]




American Political Science Association Qualitative Transparency Deliberations: Final Reports. [Link]

Balcells, L., and Sullivan, C.M. (2018). “New Findings from Conflict Archives: An Introduction and Methodological Framework.” Journal of Peace Research 55 (2): 137–46. [Link].

Calvey, D. (2017). Covert Research: The Art, Politics and Ethics of Undercover Fieldwork. London: Sage. [Link]

Clark, J.N. (2009). “Genocide, War Crimes and the Conflict in Bosnia: Understanding the Perpetrators.” Journal of Genocide Research 11(4): 421-445. [Link]

Cohen, D. K., and Hoover Green, A. (2018). “Dilemmas of Desk Research: The Ethics of Secondary Sources in Political Violence Research.” Working paper originally presented at London School of Economics/Kings College London, 4 May 2018. [Available from the authors].

Davenport, C., and Ball, B. (2002). “Views to a Kill: Exploring the Implications of Source Selection in the Case of Guatemalan State Terror, 1977-1995.” The Journal of Conflict Resolution 46(3): 427–50. [Link]

Dembour, M.-B. (2000). Recalling the Belgian Congo: Conversations and Introspection. New York & Oxford: Berghahn Books. Chapter 5 [Link]

Desposato, S. (Ed.). (2016). Ethics and Experiments: Problems and Solutions for Social Scientists and Policy Professionals. London & New York: Routledge. [Link]

Desposato, S. W. (2014). Ethical Challenges and Some Solutions for Field Experiments. [PDF]

Driscoll, J. (2016). ‘Prison States and Games of Chicken.’ In S. Desposato (Ed.), Ethics and Experiments: Problems and Solutions for Social Scientists and Policy Professionals (pp. 81-96). New York & London: Routledge. [PDF]

Einwohner, R. L. “Ethical Considerations on the Use of Archived Testimonies in Holocaust Research: Beyond the IRB Exemption.” Qualitative Sociology 34(3): 415–30.  [Link].

Eriksson Baaz, M., & Stern, M. (2016). ‘Researching Wartime Rape in the Democratic Republic of Congo.’ In A. Wibben (Ed.), Researching War: Feminist Methods, ethics and politics (117-140). Oxon & New York: Routledge. [Link]

Finkel, E. (2017). Ordinary Jews: Choice and Survival during the Holocaust. Princeton ; Oxford: Princeton University Press. Methods appendix (discusses use of written and video archival evidence related to the Holocaust).

Fujii, L.A. (2018). Interviewing in Social Science Research: A Relational Approach. New York & London: Routledge. [Link]

Fujii, L.A. (2015). “Five Stories of Accidental Ethnography: Turning Unplanned Moments in the Field into Data.” Qualitative Research 15 (4): 525–39. [Link].

Fujii, L.A. (2010). “Shades of Truth and Lies: Interpreting Testimonies of War and Violence.” Journal of Peace Research 47(2): 231–41. [Link].

Ghosn, F. and Parkinson, S.E. (2019). “‘Finding’ Sectarianism and Strife in Lebanon.” PS: Political Science and Politics 52(3): 494-497. [PDF].

Glasius, M., De Lange, M., Bartman, J., Dalmasso, E., Lv, A., Del Sordi, A., Michaelsen, M., & Ruijgrok, K. (2017). Research, Ethics and Risk in the Authoritarian Field. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. [PDF]

Gohdes, A.R. (2018). ‘Studying the Internet and Violent Conflict.’ Conflict Management and Peace Science 35(1): 89-106. [Link]

Governance in Conflict Network. “(Silent) Voices Blog: The Bukavu Series.” (Silent) Voices Blog:

Haar, G.V.D., Heijmans, A., and Hilhorst, D. (2013). “Interactive research and the construction of knowledge in conflict-affected settings.” Disasters, 37 (1): 20–35. [Link]

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